The Fisheries Law 2017 and guiding documents have new regulations to regulate the management and operation of marine protected areas (MPAs). Notably, there are regulations in the MPA on prohibited activities, names of functional subdivisions, and regulations pertaining to the Management Board's jurisdiction and obligations. In compliance with international law, these rules take a principles-based approach, creating a progressive, equal, democratic, and fair legal environment for all parties involved in marine conservation activities.
The XII Central Executive Committee's Resolution No. 36-NQ / TW on Vietnam's Strategy for Sustainable Marine Economic Development up to 2030, with a vision to 2045, set forward the perspective "Sustainable development of marine economy on the basis of green growth, protection of biodiversity and marine habitats; To achieve balance between economic and natural environments, protection and growth, and the needs of coastal and non-coastal communities; encourage investment in biodiversity conservation and growth, as well as the regeneration of aquatic ecosystems; effectively maintain and protect maritime, coastal, and island ecosystems; Increase the area of marine and maritime protected areas to at least 6% of the country's natural sea area; rehabilitate coastal mangroves to at least 2000''. The undertakings and policies of the Party and the State are in line with the goal of ensuring prosperous and sustainable development without compromising economic growth for environmental protection.
A comprehensive program of action is needed to achieve the goals set out in the Central Executive Committee's Resolution 36-NQ / TW for the protection of natural resources and the environment in general, and the marine conservation sector in particular. A set of main tasks to be completed in the time, unified from central to local level, the participation of the whole community. A number of key tasks to be performed in the period of 2021-2030 are as follows:
Institutional and policy
Continue to review, supplement, and improve marine conservation policies and laws to ensure success, continuity, viability, and reality; provide a consistent legal corridor, and favorable conditions for mobilizing domestic and foreign capital to invest in infrastructure, science and technology, and human resources for MPAs to expand sustainably.
Consolidate the state management agency structure and the organisation of MPA Management Boards in the direction of continuity and synchronization from the central and local levels. In accordance with state management laws, the MPA MBs agree to be the units directly under the Department of Agriculture and Rural Development to ensure the effectiveness and efficiency of administrative and professional management; Improve efficiency of direction and coordination between central agencies and localities on marine conservation management.
Establish and apply to the government for approval policies on investment and growth of Vietnam's marine protected areas system: The Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development has been tasked by the Government with developing a Decree amending and supplementing a number of articles of the Government's Decree 67/2014/ND-CP dated July 7, 2014 on a number of fisheries development policies, including the content of investment in the construction of essential infrastructure of the MPA, including equipment for operations. marine protected areas. Following the publication of the Decree by the Government, the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development will work with the People's Committees of coastal provinces and cities to carry out legal procedures in order to quickly implement investment in essential infrastructure products. On a national scale, aquatic restoration is being promoted.
Establish a strategy to obtain and use fees from marine protected area-related activities; conservation socialization in order to create a viable revenue base for MPAs to work.
Establish a catalog of facilities to serve as a foundation for the creation of marine protected areas; create technological and economic criteria specific to MPA MB service provision.
Creation of an MPA management plan; development of an overall project for ecotourism development in the MPA in compliance with the terms of Decree No. 26/2019 / ND-CP; Attempt to provide successful ecotourism programs in coastal protected areas by 2025, ensuring a portion of funding for conservation activities.
Concerning the work of establishing new MPAs
Concentrate on new studies, updating and modifying functional subdivisions, and extending the field of current MPAs. To prepare and establish new MPAs using data from Task 8, Project 47, and the results of investigating and surveying biodiversity and marine resources in localities. At least 20 MPAs will be established and operational by 2025, bringing the total area of protected marine areas to about 1%; by 2030, at least 30 MPAs will be established and operational, bringing the total area of protected marine areas to about 2.5 percent -3 percent. Aside from the number and region of MPAs, particular consideration should be given to the effectiveness and quality of MPAs.
Focusing on effective conservation of biodiversity and marine ecosystems; proceeding to restore degraded ecosystems, especially those of coral reefs, seagrass beds, and coastal mangroves.
Concerning the Finance
Structure of state budget capital invested in marine biodiversity preservation and restoration, establishment of a scheme of marine conservation zones in conjunction with the restructuring of the fisheries industry, maintaining investment capital balance between development and conservation.
To prevent overlapping and increase efficiency, coordinate and incorporate the execution of investment programs and initiatives. Marine restoration programs and schemes should be delegated to a focus point for oversight and execution, such as DARD, the MPA management board, and marine aspect national parks.
Review, complement, and improve the framework for state management agencies to coordinate the management of financial capital for investment in the establishment of the structure of marine conservation zones (at the central and local levels; among ministries and branches; among General Departments, Departments, Departments).
Establish a stable source of revenue for conservation by formulating and promulgating regulations on the importance of aquatic habitats as a framework for marine conservation areas to raise duty charges.
Regarding scientific research activities in the MPA
Develop and successfully execute scientific analysis projects for use in MPAs. Adopt a mechanism to enable management boards of MPAs and national parks with aquatic elements, as well as organisations and entities, to conduct applied science initiatives to aid conservation efforts.
Investigate and assess biodiversity fluctuations in MPAs and national parks with marine elements, especially vulnerable, valuable, and rare species, as a foundation for offering conservation solutions.
Restore coral reefs, seagrass beds, and artificial reefs by conducting research, completing the process, and multiplying artificial culture technologies.
Establish a socialization model for coastal conservation in order to leverage support for the restoration and preservation of aquatic habitats, as well as the creation of livelihoods for people living in and around the MPA.
Developing and effectively use a marine biodiversity database as a basis for tracking and evaluating biodiversity fluctuations, the condition of marine ecosystems, and the sustainable management of marine conservation zones for state management of marine biodiversity conservation.
Training for capacity building and teamwork to increase awareness
Organize short-term training workshops to develop technical qualifications and expertise for marine conservation personnel in order to fulfill the job's growing demands.
Improve communication, education, and awareness raising, as well as knowledge and understanding of marine conservation for all groups of people, especially students at all educational levels and levels. Training and development of marine conservation staff with strong technical qualifications that meet realistic needs. Currently, the Directorate of Fisheries is advising the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development to establish a coordination project to increase community conservation capability. Marine protection in the term 2021-2030 is the task of the Government's Action Program to implement Central Executive Committee Resolution No. 36-NQ / TW.
Closely work with commune-level local authorities to propagate, disseminate, and raise knowledge for people living in and around the MPA; create a close partnership and collaboration between the MPA Management Board and the authorities and local communities to ensure consensus and support for more successful conservation.
Carrying out international cooperation on aquatic conservation activities
Continue to encourage international collaboration efforts in marine conservation in order to benefit from partners', international and regional organizations' technological and financial support for MPAs. Collaborate together with international organisations to design and propose financing programs for coastal restoration, wild fauna and flora conservation, and marine ecosystem conservation in Vietnam.
To take seriously and fully implement international and regional treaties and agreements on marine biodiversity conservation to which Vietnam has acceded; to research and suggest participation in significant international treaties on biodiversity, marine resources, and environmental management. Participate regularly in international meetings, workshops, and conferences on MPA management and marine biodiversity conservation
Le Mai (theo tongcucthuysan.gov.vn)